Transdisciplinary Research on Individuals 


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Philosophy-of-Science (TPS) Paradigm

  Aims and scope
  Basic assumptions
  Central findings

Empirical Applications
of the TPS Paradigm


Science Blog





The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS Paradigm)




























 - Aims and Scope -

The name of the paradigm

The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm is a paradigm because it comprises interrelated philosophical, metatheoretical and methodological frameworks for exploring individuals from different sociocultural communities in humans and from different species. 

In these frameworks, concepts, approaches and methods from various scientific disciplines are systematically integrated, further developed and complemented by novel ones in order to enable applications across disciplines and collaborative research. Therefore, it is a transdisciplinary paradigm. 

The TPS Paradigm emphasises the importance of making explicit the philosophical assumptions that are being made in a given scientific system and the metatheories and methodologies that are derived from them. Moreover, it aims to make these explicit and to scrutinise them in the fields in which individuals are the subject of investigation, thus enabling critical analyses and further developments. Therefore, it is called a philosophy-of-science paradigm. 

Philosophy of science: Philosophical assumptions, metatheories and methodologies

Philosophy-of-science refers to the most general level of scientific knowledge about the making of science. It comprises the philosophical assumptions that scientists make about the nature of their objects of research (ontology) and the fundamental notions about how knowledge about them can be gained (epistemology). Philosophy-of-science also comprises the metatheories and methodologies that scientists build on the basis of the particular philosophical presuppositions they have made.

Metatheories are implicit and explicit beliefs, ideas and basic assumptions that determine what scientists consider to be facts and objects of research in their field and what questions they ask about these objects. 

Methodologies are the ways (approaches) in which scientists tackle the questions that they have asked about their objects of research and the techniques and research practices (methods) that they use in these efforts.

Research on Individuals: A hub in the sciences

Research on individuals builds on all sciences. It involves the life sciences because individuals are living organisms, the physical sciences because non-living phenomena comprise the essential surroundings of individuals (e.g., architectural and technological installations), the social sciences as individuals interact with other individuals, and psychology as the individual constitutes the basic ontological unit of psychology, which awards this discipline a unique position within the sciences and philosophy.

More information is provided in Uher (2016, 2015a,b,c,d) and the Science Blogs "A new scientific paradigm for research on individuals" and "What is philosophy-of-science? And why is this needed?"